Cocoa Swollen Shoot Disease (CSSD) is a severe challenge within the cocoa trade. Several strains exist and it could possibly trigger defoliation, die-back and extreme yield losses.
Cocoa timber affected by CSSD might be asymptomatic for as much as two years, however then begin to present signs similar to crimson leaf veins or swollen stems and roots. Typically, contaminated timber die inside 3-4 years of symptom improvement. Sick timber can’t be cured. The illness can solely be managed by stopping additional unfold to wholesome timber, for instance by planting barrier crops or reducing out contaminated timber solely.
CSSD is prevalent in West African nations together with Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo and Ghana, the place it was first detected in 1936. Across Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire over 780,000 hectares of cocoa timber are believed to be contaminated, in keeping with Mars Wrigles and SwissDeCode. Currently, round 14 million cocoa farming households are impacted by the illness, SwissDeCode CEO and co-founder Brij Sahi famous.
“We have been on the lookout for dependable preventive options in opposition to CSSD because the Forties, as every year cocoa farms are being more and more affected by this virus,” Jean-Philippe Marelli, Senior Director Integrated Pest Management at Mars Wrigley, noticed.
Early detection to stem the unfold of CSSD
Up till now, no environment friendly strategies to shortly detect the presence of the virus in discipline had been discovered. A collaboration between SwissDeCode and Mars Wrigley is altering this.
SwissDeCode has leveraged its experience in meals authentication and DNA detection options alongside Mars Wrigley’s crop science perception to know the particular points and necessities of finish customers, from cocoa farmers to buying and selling organizations.
The partnership has resulted within the creation of an on-site take a look at that may detect the virus in lower than 60 minutes. Built on SwissDeCode’s DNAFoil proprietary expertise, and incorporating underlying analysis from Mars Wrigley, the brand new answer is an ‘easy-to-perform’ testing equipment that permits discipline personnel to check cocoa timber utilizing their leaves as samples.
The take a look at would permit farmers to detect contaminated timber earlier than they present any signs. Swift motion to stop the unfold of the virus to wholesome timber might help cocoa farms restrict the impression of CSSD. Cocoa tree nurseries may additionally use the take a look at to observe tree well being and guarantee planting supplies are launched provided that they’re freed from the virus.
Containing unfold of the illness helps to safeguard farmer livelihoods and future cocoa provides. Leveraging the testing tech to replant contaminated areas and regenerate farms wouldn’t solely enhance yields – it will additionally scale back the chance of additional deforestation, SwissDeCode steered.
“We are making cocoa farming extra sustainable, by stopping large-scale deforestation attributable to recurring infections,” Sahi claimed.
Moving from take a look at to scale rollout
Field validations of the take a look at at the moment are underneath approach. “For years, governments, trade and different organizations have been actively engaged in combating the unfold of CSSD. Currently, Mars and SwissDeCode are working with extension companies to validate the software, conduct focus teams, and establish the simplest methods to make the software accessible for farmers,” Marelli informed FoodNavigator.
Mars Wrigley hopes to assist widespread entry to the testing software for farmers all through West Africa, the pest administration specialist continued. “Our purpose is to make the software broadly accessible to be used in cocoa farms and nurseries in West Africa, so we can be working with key trade and institutional stakeholders to finest scale the provision and the proper use of the software.”
“Once discipline validation is full, which we anticipate can be performed by the top of the calendar 12 months (2021), the software can be commercially accessible to all farmers and establishments excited about utilizing and deploying it. The take a look at can be manufactured and offered by SwissDeCode,” Sahi added.